Internetworking and Media Access

by E-Computer Concepts May 19, 2020 at 8:24 am

Medium Access Control

In telecommunications and computer networks, a channel access method or multiple access method allows several terminals connected to the same multi-point transmission medium to transmit over it and to share its capacity.

Examples of shared physical media are wireless networks, bus networks, ring networks and half-duplex point-to-point links.

A channel-access scheme is based on a multiplexing method, that allows several data streams or signals to share the same communication channel or physical medium.

Multiplexing is in this context provided by the physical layer. Note that multiplexing also may be used in full-duplex point-to-point communication between nodes in a switched network, which should not be considered as multiple accesses.

A channel-access scheme is also based on a multiple access protocol and control mechanism, also known as media access control (MAC). This protocol deals with issues such as addressing, assigning multiplex channels to different users, and avoiding collisions.

The MAC-layer is a sub-layer in Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model and a component of the Link Layer of the TCP/IP model.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

The frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) channel-access scheme is based on the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme, which provides different frequency bands to different data-streams. In the FDMA case, the data streams are allocated to different nodes or devices.

An example of FDMA systems were the first-generation (1G) cell-phone systems, where each phone call was assigned to a specific up link frequency channel, and another down link frequency channel. Each message signal (each phone call) is modulated on a specific carrier frequency.

A related technique is wavelength division multiple access (WDMA), based on wave length division multiplexing (WDM), where different data streams get different colors in fiber-optical communications. In the WDMA case, different network nodes in a bus or hub network get a different color.

An advanced form of FDMA is the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) scheme, for example used in 4G cellular communication systems. In OFDMA, each node may use several sub carriers, making it possible to provide different quality of service (different data rates) to different users. The assignment of sub-carriers to users may be changed dynamically, based on the current radio channel conditions and traffic load.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

The time division multiple access (TDMA) channel access scheme is based on the time division multiplexing (TDM) scheme, which provides different time-slots to different data-streams (in the TDMA case to different transmitters) in a cyclically repetitive frame structure. For example, node 1 may use time slot 1, node 2 time slot 2, etc. until the last transmitter.

Then it starts all over again, in a repetitive pattern, until a connection is ended and that slot becomes free or assigned to another node. An advanced form is Dynamic TDMA (DTDMA), where a scheduling may give different time sometimes but some times node 1 may use time slot 1 in first frame and use another time slot in next frame.

As an example, 2G cellular systems are based on a combination of TDMA and FDMA. Each frequency channel is divided into eight time slots, of which seven are used for seven phone calls, and one for signaling data.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)/Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA)

The code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme is based on spread spectrum, meaning that a wider radio spectrum in Hertz is used than the data rate of each of the transferred bit streams, and several message signals are transferred simultaneously over the same carrier frequency, utilizing different spreading codes.

The wide bandwidth makes it possible to send with a very poor signal-to-noise ratio of much less than 1 (less than 0 dB) according to the Shannon-Hearty formula, meaning that the transmission power can be reduced to a level below the level of the noise and co-channel interference (cross talk) from other message signals sharing the same frequency.

One form is direct sequence spread spectrum (DS-CDMA), used for example in 3G cell phone systems. Each information bit (or each symbol) is represented by a long code sequence of several pulses, called chips. The sequence is the spreading code, and each message signal (for example each phone call) use different spreading code.

Another form is frequency-hopping (FH-CDMA), where the channel frequency is changing very rapidly according to a sequence that constitutes the spreading code. As an example, the Bluetooth communication system is based on a combination of frequency-hopping and either CSMA/CA packet mode communication (for data communication applications) or TDMA (for audio transmission).

All nodes belonging to the same user (to the same virtual private area network or picante) use the same frequency hopping sequences synchronously, meaning that they send on the same frequency channel, but CDMA/CA or TDMA is used to avoid collisions within the VPAN. Frequency-hopping is used to reduce the cross-talk and collision probability between nodes in different VPAN’s.

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