Total Quality Management (TQM)

by E-Computer Concepts May 22, 2020 at 10:38 am

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers.

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending
backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers.

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending
backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers.

One of the important issues that business has focused on in the last two decades is ―quality. The other issues are cost and delivery. Quality has been widely considered as a key element for success in business in the present competitive market. Quality refers to meeting the needs and expectations of customers. It is important to understand that quality is about more than a
product simply working properly.

Quality refers to certain standards and the ways and means by which those standards are achieved, maintained and improved. Quality is not just confined to products and services. It is a homogeneous element of any aspect of doing things with high degree of perfection. For example Business success depends on the quality decision making.

TQM Definition

TQM is the management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on me participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction. and benefits to all members of me organization and to society.- ISO

TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customers (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through every one involved with the organization working on continuous improvement in all products, services, and processes along with proper problem solving methodology – INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE ( ISI )

TQM is people – focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower cost. TQM is a total system approach (not a separate area of program ), and an integral part of high level strategy. It works horizontally across functions and departments, involving all employees, top to bottom, and exceeds backwards and forward to include the supply chain and the customer chain – TOTAL QUALITY FORUM OF USA

Define Quality

  • Predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to the market -Deming
  • Fitness for use-Juran
  • Conformance to requirements – Crosby
  • Minimum loss imparted by a product to society from the time the product is shipped – Taguchi
  • A way of managing tile organization -Feigenbaum
  • Correcting and preventing loss, not living with loss – Hosffin .
  • The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs – ISO

Quantification of Quality

Q= P / E

P = Performance
E = Expectations
Q = Quality

Dimension of Quality

Quality has 2 dimensions. These dimensions are product and service quality.

Dimensions of Product Quality

  1. Performance: primary product characteristics, e.g. picture brightness in TV.
  2. Features: secondary characteristics, added features, e.g. remote control, picture-in-picture.
  3. Usability: ease of use with minimum training.
  4. Conformance: meeting specifications, industry standards,. (E.g. ISI specs., emission norms).
  5. Reliability: consistency of performance over a specified time period under specified conditions.
  6. Durability: extent of useful life, sturdiness.
  7. Maintainability/Serviceability: ease of attending to maintenance, repairs.
  8. Efficiency: ratio of output to input. E.g. mileage, braking distance, processing time.
  9. Aesthetics: sensory characteristics, e.g. appearance, exterior finish, texture, color, shape, etc.
  10. Reputation: subjective assessment based of past performance, brand image, industry ranking.
  11. Safety: in items like pressure cookers, electrical items, toys, cranes, etc.

Dimensions of Service Quality

  1. Time: how much time a customer must wait / undergo service.
  2. Timeliness: whether service will be performed when promised.
  3. Completeness: whether all items in the order are included.
  4. Consistency: consistent service every time, and for every customer. Reliability of service.
  5. Accessibility/Convenience: ease of obtaining the service.
  6. Accuracy: absence of mistakes.
  7. Responsiveness: quick response, resolution of unexpected problems.
  8. Courtesy: cheerful, friendly service.
  9. Competency/Expertise: In professions like doctors, lawyers, mechanics, etc.

TQM Basic Concepts

Management Involvement

Participate in quality program, develop quality council, direct participation.

Focus on Customer

Who is the customer – internal and external, voice of the customer, do it right first time and every time.

Involvement and Utilization of Entire Work Force

All levels of management

Continuous Improvement

Quality never stops, placing orders, bill errors, delivery,
minimize wastage and scrap etc.

Treating Suppliers as Partners

No business exists without suppliers.

Performance Measures

Creating accountability in all levels

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