What is Programming?
The set of instruction, which is given to computer to process the data or carry out a certain work, is called a program.
Programming is a technique of writing a program using some programming language. The programming process is a set of activities that carried out to develop and implement a program. You should have to understand this process in order to become a programmer.
The following all the different steps used in program development:
- 1 1. Problem Definition
- 2 2. Program Design
- 3 3. Coding
- 4 4. Testing
- 5 5. Documentation
- 6 6. Implementation and Maintenance
- 7 Procedure Oriented Programming
- 8 Event Driven Programming
- 9 Object Oriented Programming
1. Problem Definition
This is the first step in program development that involves what is actually required, i,e, the output, what is available, i.e., the input and defining how this input be transformed into the needed output.
2. Program Design
The second step in program development is designing the problem solution. The programmer must decide, prior to writing his problem, the steps the computer should take to solve an identified problem. He must described the step-by-step procedure this is referred to as writing an algorithm or a diagrammatic representation, called flow charts.
The third step coding is the process of converting the program design to computer language format. This process creates the actual program. The instruction written must follow the language syntax, i.e., the rules of writing format of a particular language.
This step test the program to run it correctly in any situation and gives to the user what he actually requires. This process includes running a program and correcting errors.
This process is run throughout the program development process. This includes developing user instruction, explanation of the logic of the program. This is an important step, though it is overlooked by some of the programmers.
6. Implementation and Maintenance
This is the process after the program is developed and is ready to be used. Implementation refers to install the program in the computer to be used. In spite of program development being complete, there may be a need of some changes, which is said to be the maintenance process.
Procedure Oriented Programming
Procedure oriented programming is the conventional way of programming where an application problem is viewed as a sequence of steps.
In Procedure oriented programming the problems is broken down into various modules such as data entry reporting querying modules etc. There are two types of data, which are associated with these modules, one is global and another is local data.
Global data items are mainly defined in main program, where local data is defined with the associated functions.
Many of the functions in the programming language share global data, which is available to all the function. The procedure-oriented programming is the traditional approach of programming for developing application software.
Advantages of Procedure Oriented Programming
- It is easy to understand explain and documentation.
- Procedure oriented programming is easier to learn as compared to other new ways of programming.
- The testing and debugging is also easy.
Disadvantages of Procedure Oriented Programming
- It stresses more an algorithm rather than data.
- It takes more time in processing.
- The global data is available to the function so it is easily accessed by any function, which creates certain problems.
Event Driven Programming
The program you have written displayed menus, objects, and dialog boxes on the screen and encouraged users to manipulate screen elements in whatever order that saw fit.
These programs put the user in charge, waited patiently for a response, and then processed the input predictably.
In programming circles, this methodology is known as event-driven programming. You build a program by creating a group of intelligent objects, and then you process the input by using event procedure associated with the objects.
Object Oriented Programming
It is a program paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained. Object-Oriented programming language took the best ideas of structured programming and combines them with many new concepts like object, class, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation.
Object oriented Programming language supports the direct implementation of object and classes. It is an approach that provides a way of dividing task into modules.
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